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i 



Elementary, Economic Experiments in Physics 
by Reginald F Melton 



INTEHWWTFONAL CLEARINGHOUSE 
SCIENCE TEACHING CENTER 
UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND 




i. administrator's guide 



Administrator's Guide 
to 
ELEMENTARY, ECONOMIC EXPERIMENTS IN PHYSICS 



by 
REGINALD F 9 MELTON 



!'3 






©Reginald F. Melton, 1972 



INTRODUCTION 



When working as a Science Education Adviser in 
the Philippines during the sixties Mr. R.F. Melton 
developed a series of elementary experiments in 
secondary school physics using simple apparatus. 
Details for the construction of the apparatus and 
information about the design of a suitable laboratory, 
workshop and storerooms were described. 

Although the development of the equipment was the 
primary objective, Mr* Melton considered that it was 
necessary to give an example of a course in physics 
for which the apparatus would be suitable. He 
therefore wrote a Student Guide and a Teacher's 
Guide to such a course in addition to a Guide to the 
Apparatus and an Administrator's Guide, 

It seemed to us in the Centre for Educational 
Development Overseas that science advisers and 
curriculum teams working in developing countries 
might find these guides of considerable interest and 
value, so the Centre arranged for a limited number of 
copies to be made available. It may also be of 
interest to note that a study called Inexpe nsive 
Science Teaching Equipment Wo rldwide XTS^2y7Ts~l)eing^ 



jmETTslTeS^eparately and"~wTTT complement these volumes 

published by CEDO. This study was conducted by 

Dr. J. David Lockard and Mr, R. ,F. Melton during 1971 

at the University of Maryland Science Teaching Center, 

U.S.A. 



Produced by 

CEDO, 

Tavistock House South, 

Tavistock Square, 

London WC1H 9LL. 



Limited circulation 
June, 19 72 



r i 



Author's Foreword 



"To all my friends overseas" 



The author spent ten years in developing countries, 
working for the British Government in Turkey and the 
Philippines and for the Ford Foundation in Pakistan. 
During that time he became acutely aware of the 
problems facing developing countries in the field of 
science education , and it is his hope that 'Triple E 
Physics' will contribute in some small way to the 
major tasks that lie ahead. 'Triple E Physics' emerged 
from a wealth of experiences shared with educators, 
scientists and friends overseas, and it would seem 
fitting that this book should be dedicated to those 
many friends who made the author's work in developing 
countries such a rewarding experience. 

The author was until recently the Associate Director 
of a project for the development of "Improvised Science 
Teaching Equipment Worldwide" at the Science Teaching 
Center of the University of Maryland (USA). 



! 1 



Table of Contents 



Page 



8 



1. WHY 'TRIPLE E PHYSICS'? 1 

2 9 WHAT IS 'TRIPLE E PHYSICS'? 2 

3, APPARATUS DESIGNS 4 

3*1 Modification of Existing Item Types 4 

3 9 2 New Item Types 8 

3 9 3 Kits 

4 9 APPARATUS REQUIREMENTS AND COSTS 9 

4 9 1 Apparatus Requirements 11 

4 9 2 .Additional Requirements 14 

5 8 IMPLEMENTATION OF 'TRIPLE E PHYSICS' 16 

6 8 APPARATUS PRODUCTION 18 

6*1 Student and Teacher Production 18 

6.2 Technical School Production 19 

6 9 3 Factory Production 19 

6 9 4 Cottage Industry Production 19 

7 9 WORKSHOP FACILITIES 20 

7*1 Hand too Is 20 

7,2 Machine Tools 22 

7 9 3 Raw Materials 24 

7„4 Adhesives 26 

7 9 5 A Workshop Plan 27 

8„ LABORATORY FACILITIES 28 

8 9 1 The Economy Laboratory 

8 9 2 The Normal Laboratory 



28 
42 



!• _ W !' 1Y 'Ji'^k^ A ™§ics^ 

When the Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) began its work in 
the United States in late 1956 it started a movement which is now 
revolutionizing the teaching of science* Breaking away from traditional 
ideas the PSSC will be remembered in the same spirit as the first four 
minute mile, as a foretaste of things to come. 

Since then science projects have mushroomed , leaving us with little 
doubt that we are at the beginning (not the end) of a period of revolution 
in science teaching. Teachers in developing countries are daily growing 
more and more aware of the new ideals and methods being generated , but far 
too often are unable to benefit from the dynamic winds of change sweeping 
through the field of education. The reasons for this are fairly clear. 

Adoption of new programs in Developing Countries makes little sense if 
such programs are either unsuited to a country's academic needs or are 
beyond what a country can reasonably afford. Teachers are realistic in 
such matters and recognize the need to modify existing programs before 
adoption^ but it is at this stage that problems arise. What parts of a 
program are suitable for adoption? What apparatus should be purchased , 
given limited financial resources? What does one do if apparatus requires 
sophisticated laboratory facilities? How far can a program be modified 
without destroying its essential character? It is usually at such a stage 
that frustration sets in. What can teachers do alone without the essential 
guidance and support needed to modify materials , and without the necessary 
resources to develop facilities? It was very much with such questions in 
mind that 'Triple E Physics' was developed. 



_ 2 - 

2 a WHAT IS 'TRIPLE E PHYSICS 1 ? 

'Triple E Physics' is a package of materials developed to help educators 
introduce a scientific , inquiring approach into the teaching of physics in 
Developing Countries , Low cost apparatus , designed for production in local 
workshops and for use under simple laboratory conditions , is fundamental to 
the whole program* Equally important , however , is the integration of materials 
ranging from guidance for students , teachers and technicians to the provision 
of resource materials for administrators. The development of laboratories , 
workshop facilities f trial programs and in-service training are all considered 
equally important parts of the development machinery . 

More specifically 'Triple E Physics' is a package consisting of a Student 
Guide , Teacher's "Guide , Apparatus Guide and Administrator's Guide . 

The Student Guide is based on the premise that high school students in 
Developing Countries , like students everywhere , need to learn to understand 
what scientific knowledge really means and how it is built up from developing 
theories and experiments . They must learn to understand the uncertainties of 
science , and yet to appreciate its paramount importance to society • Such 
understanding can be developed through an inquiring approach „ placing the pupil 
in the position of the researcher and the teacher in the position of consultants 
This is not the only way of approaching the problem,, but it is a technique 
which has already shown considerable promise . Above all it is an approach 
which has been found to provide essential motivation to the majority of students , 
who so often in the past have been bored and disillusioned by traditional , 
pedagogic methods of teaching , but have been excited and awakened to the allure 
of science by an attitude of discovery • 

The Student Guide therefore presents a series of experiments which are 
fundamental in nature „ and as such are ideal for Introducing new concepts • 
Educators may select individual experiments to fit into their existing 
curriculum,, or f since the experiments have been developed as a logical 
sequence , may choose to offer the experiments as a whole , as an introductory 
course in physics f which is complete in itself . 

The Teacher's guide is based on the knowledge that very few teachers 
are willing to adopt new philosophies without considerable assistance. 



- 3 - 



At least the traditional t pedagogic method of teaching gives a teacher 
confidence , even if it offers very little else, so it is important to 
insure that a teacher receives sufficient guidance to enable him to 
proceed in new ways with confidence . For this reason the Teacher 1 s 
Guide contains detailed results of actual experiments along with 
relevant comments and suggestions,, 

The Apparatus Guide describes how equipment may be made in the 
simplest of workshops , and as such is fundamental to the whole program* 
The apparatus it describes has been developed specifically for Developing 
Countries in the realization that they have very limited economies , and 
that by necessity their schools have not only limited laboratory facilities f 
but also' stringent financial resources • Apparatus has therefore been 
designed for economy 9 for ease of operation under limited laboratory 
conditions , and for ease of production under local conditions • 

Apparatus has been designed specifically with students and teachers in 
mind f and can be made with the simplest of handtools* This has the advantage 
that cottage industries will have no difficulty in adapting the designs to 
their own requirements «, whereas the reverse situation would be much more 
difficult. 

It is in fact envisaged that cottage industries will be the major 
producers of equipment for 'Triple E Physics 1 , and with this in mind a few 
blue-prints have been added to describe the more complex items 9 However f 
sophisticated techniques and machinery are not required f even for the most 
complex items , and good local workshops should have little difficulty in 
handling the work, • __ 

The Administrator's Guide not only includes details of laboratory plans , 
workshop facilities and methods of production, but also a breakdown on the 
type of overall planning that is so essential to the implementation of any 
new program. Administrators must be prepared to determine for themselves 
what experiments might realistically be included in their curricula „ what 
in-service training will be required, what apparatus production will be 
necessary and what laboratory development will be essentials The 
Administrator's Guide has been written specifically to help answer such 
questions,, and as such is a crucial component of 'Triple E Physics' . 



- 4 - 



l?„.__^?AEATy§_9?SIGNS 

The Apparatus Guide contains three types of designs? modifications 
of existing item types , completely new items ? and items which may be 
grouped into kits/ All these designs take into account not only the 
raw materials and technical skills that are available in Developing 
Countries , but also their limited economies. The following examples 
should illustrate these points . 

3.1 Modification of Existing Item Types 

In designing a force and motion cart it is recognized that ball 
bearing wheels are often unavailable in Developing Countries , or if 
available may be .extremely expensive . The design offered therefore 
makes use of simple pivot-type wheels which can readily be produced 
under local conditions . Frictional effects with the cart are reduced 
by using an inclined slope to compensate for friction* 







•' .J 



_ 5 - 



Similarly small electrical motors are often unavailable , or, if 
available , are expensive . The design of the ripple tank vibrator therefore 
describes a mechanical type of vibrator rather than an electrically driven 
one* This simplified vibrator still permits the realization of a whole 
range of wave motion experiments with the ripple tank* 




- 6 - 



Production of optical prisms and lenses from glass requires specialized 
technical skills , but the Apparatus Guide describes how these may be made 
from plastics (acrylic) with no more than a hacksaw , some sandpaper and a 
little metal polish,, 




t j 



U 



- 7 - 



High quality steels and alnico alloys are often extremely difficult 
to obtain in Developing Countries , and the production of high quality 
magnets becomes a major problem,, Electromagnets, however ? may readily 
replace normal magnets p and designs making use of these in such items 
as moving coil galvanometers and magnetic field apparatus are included 
in the Apparatus Guide . 






1 li 1 




) |H J 


s \ 






^d f^^^ 0. 









- 8 - 



3 a 2 New Item Types 

Although some economy may be made by modifying existing item types 9 
much greater economy results if new apparatus is designed to illustrate 
basic concepts • For example 9 the concept that bodies fall with the same 
gravitational acceleration^ if unaffected by friction from the air 9 may 
be demonstrated at considerable expense with the help of an evacuated tube g 
a feather and a piece of metal (the usual "guinea and feather experiment"),, 
However „ it may be presented equally well with a stone and a sheet of 
paper , The Student Guide lists materials such as the paper and stone 8 
along with other items of apparatus 9 and indicates how these may be used 
to develop particular concepts * Thus relative motion is studied with 
pieces of paper „ while forces are studied with strips of metal 9 sponge 
rubber 9 modelling clay ? wire and syringes 9 

3 9 3 Kits 

The Student Guide groups activities together by concept % introducing 
each with a list of apparatus (the kit) required to study the concept* 
This means that although a single item (e 9 g 9| ripple tank) may be relatively 
expensive , the cost per experiment is relatively^ low since the accessories 
make it possible to perform a whole series of experiments,, 



n 



- 9 - 



4, APPARATUS REQUIREMENTS AND COSTS 

The following lists indicate the total equipment that would be required 
by a class of 32 students undertaking all the experiments presented in 
'Triple E Physics ', It is strongly recommended that laboratory classes 
should not exceed 32 students per teacher, and that students should 
normally work in pairs , although occasionally (e„g, 9 for ripple tank work) 
groups of 4 are permissible. It follows that equipment is required in 
multiples of 16 9 and occasionally 8, for class experimentation. If only 
one item of equipment is listed in a particular kit this indicates that the 
item is to be used on a rotational basis by students 9 or as a demonstration 
item by the teacher , Clearly , teachers and administrators will wish to adjust 
these lists according to the number of experiments to be adopted in their 
curricula and according to the class size envisaged. 

It is suggested that equipment producers should pack the apparatus in 
class kits, that is 16 (or 8 9 etc) pieces of the same equipment per box 
as indicated below. If the kits are packed in shallow cardboard boxes from 
which the top and half the front may readily be removed the boxes will serve 
as storage trays, thus permitting a teacher to select an appropriate set of 
apparatus with the minimum of inconveniences The teacher will probably find 
it convenient to store the apparatus in the same order as that given in the 
following lists. 

It is of interest to record that 3 sets of equipment for 'Triple E Physics' 
were produced and tested in the Philippines between 1966 and 1969, The cost of 
the raw materials required to produce the apparatus was estimated on this basis , 
and it was determined that equipment listed below could be produced at a cost_ 
of $207 dollars (1969 estimate). This does not include the cost of labor which 



- 10 - 



could more than double the final cost Involved » Clearly costs vary from 
country to country 9 but 9 taking into consideration the 139 activities which 
may be undertaken with the 'Triple E Physics 1 materials 9 it would appear that 
there is some justification for suggesting that the experiments are economic 
in nature 8 * 



n 



* The 139 activities includes 

MEASUREMENT 19 activities 

FORCES AND MOTION 47 

WAVE MOTION 17 

OPTICS 33 

ELECTRICITY 23 

Taking into account the raw material cost only s the total 'Triple E Physics' 
materials costs 

$207 dollars per class of 32 students per 139 activities 
or $0 9 07 dollars per student per activity » 



- 11 - 



4.1 Apparatus Requirements 

Item No. Apparatus 

1,10/01 Triangulation Device 

1. 10/02 Displacement Block 

1. 20/01 Balance 

l 9 20/02 Box of Weights 

1.20/03 Microbalance 

1.30/01 Ticker Tape Timer 

or 
[1.30/02 Alternative Ticker Tape Timer (Blue-Print)] 

1.40/01 Relative Motion Frame 

2.10/01 Wire Extender 

2.10/02 Wire Spring, Copper 

Wire Spring t Steel 
2.10/03 Rebound Apparatus 
2.10/04 Spring Balance^ 1 Newton 

Spring Balance 9 10 Newtons 

2.10/05 Puck 

2.10/06 Friction Tube with Stand 

2.20/01 Simple Cart 
or 

[2.20/02 Cart (Blue-Print)] 

2.20/03 Inclined Plane 

2.20/04 C Clamp 

2.40/01 Inertial Balance 

2.50/01 Elastic Collision Runway 

2.60/01 Centripetal Force Apparatus 

2.70/01 Dynamo /Motor 

or 
[2.70/02 Dynamo /Motor (Blue-Print)] 

2.70/03 Simple Machine 

3.10/01 Ripple Tank 

3.10/02 Ripple Tank Accessories 

3.10/03 Stroboscope 



Quantity 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 

16 

1 

16 

16 

1 

16 

16 

1 

1 

16 



16 
16 
16 

8 
1 

16 
8 
8 
8 



- 12 - 



Item Nq^ j^R^^tus SHfS^jUr^ 

4.10/01 Light Source with Base 16 
(8 sources already available with Ripple Tanks) 

4 . 10/02 Slit/Aperture Combination 16 

4* 10/03 Mirrors, Plane 16 

Mirrors % Curved 16 

4*10/04 Optical Board with Fins 16 

4 . 10/05 Optical Prisms f Rectangular 16 

Optical Prisms % Triangular 16 

Optical Prisms „ Semi-circular 16 

4 . 10/06 Refraction Model Apparatus 16 

4.10/07 Screen with Holder 16 

4 . 10/08 Filter (Red) 16 

4 8 20/01 Single and Double Diffraction Slits 16 

or 
[4. 20/02 Adjustable Diffraction Slit (Blue-Print)] 

4 . 20/03 Simple Diffraction Holes 16 

4*30/01 Multiple Slit 16 

4.30/02 Lens Holder 16 

4*30/03 Interference Strips f Copper 2 

Interference Strips , Steel 2 

5.10/01 Dry Cell Holder with Cells 32 

5.10/02 Bulb Holder with Bulb 64 

5,10/03 Switch 32 

5 . 10/04 Multipurpose Coil with Cores 32 

5 , 10/05 Compass 32 

5.10/06 Magnetizing Coil 1 

Cylindrical Magnets (5 cms long, 0*8 cms diameter) ,32 

5 . 10/07 Tangent Galvanometer 16 

5 . 10/08 Magnetic Field Apparatus 16 

or 

[5,10/09 Magnetic Field Apparatus with Multipurpose Coils] 

(Multipurpose Coils already available) 

5.10/10 Moving Coil Galvanometer 16 

or 

[5 „ 10/11 Moving Coil Galvanometer with Multipurpose Coils] 

(Multipurpose Coils already available) 
or 
[5.10/12 Moving Coil Galvanometer (Blue-Print)] 

(Multipurpose Coils already available) 



- 13 - 



Item No. Apparatus Quantity 

5,20/01 Neon Bulb Holder with Bulb 16 

5.20/02 Electricity Tester 16 

5.20/03 Resistor Holder with Resistor 16 

5.20/04 Chemical Cell 16 



- 14 - 



l l °.?. ... Add 1 t ional Requirements 

Apparatus 
Ball Bearings t diameter 0.8 cms 
Ball Bearings 9 diameter 1 8 2 cms 
Ball Bearings g diameter 2.4 cms 

Balls , Brass „ Centrally Drilled , diameter 1.2 cms 
Balls , Brassg Centrally Drilled f diameter 2*4 cms 
Barriers , Wooden (8x 3x0,8 cms) 
Blocks $ Wooden (10 x 6 x 4 cms) 
Bottle Tops 

Bulbs (2*5 volts, 0.3 amps) 
Bulbs (6*2 volts , 0.3 amps) 
Cardboard Strips (10 x 2 cms) 
Chalk 

Container , Plastic (approximately 10 cms deep 9 10 cms diameter) 
Cork (1 cm diameter , 0.5 cms deep) 
Cubes , Sponge Rubber (5x3x2 cms) 
Cubes , Wooden (4x4x4 cms) 
Hacksaw 
Hammer 

Lead Strips (10 x 5 x 0.1 cms) 
Lenses , Hand (focal length 10 to 20 cms) 
Metal Strips „ Alloy (20 x 1.5 x 0.05 cms) 
Metal S trips f Lead (20 x 1.5 x 0.05 cms) 
Metal Strips, Steel (20 x 1.5 x 0.05 cms) 
Modelling Clay 

Nails (1 cm long,, approximately) 
Nails (10 cms long § 0.7 cms diameter) 
Needles (3 cms long) 
Olive Oil 

Paper , Carbon (22 x 28 cms approximately) 
Paper , Plain White (22 x 28 cms approximately) 
Paper Clips (100) 
Plastic Strips (10 x 2.5 cms) 
Protractors 
Rings , Metal (diameter 0.5 cms) 



16 




16 




16 




16 




16 




16 




32 




8 




64 




16 




16 




1 


box 


2 




8 




32 




32 




4 




4 




8 




16 




16 




16 




16 


- 


1 


kgm 


1 


kgm 


1 


kgm 


50 




0.5 


liters 


50 


sheets 


2 


reams 


4 boxes 


32 




16 




16 





- 15 - 



Apparatus 

Rubber Bands (100) 

Rubber Bands, Chain of (40 to 50 cms long) 

Rulers , Meter 

Salt 

Sandpaper (20 x 20 cm approximately , varied grades) 

Screws, Cup 

Set Squares (approximately 10 x 17 x 20 cms, or bigger) 

Soap Solution (dish washing liquid) 

Springy Door (35 cms long, 1 cm diameter approximately) 

String, strong and thin (50 meters) 

Syringe 9 Plastic (without needle, 

minimum diameter 1 9 5 cms, minimum volume 10 ccs) 

Thumb Tacks (100) 

Ticker Tape (25 meters) 

Vinegar 

Wire, Copper (Plastic or Cotton Covered, #24) 

Wire, Magnet (#24) 

Wire, Magnet (#26) 

Wire, Steel (#26) 

Wire, Steel (#30) 



Quant 


tity 


8 


boxes 


40 




16 




9 5 


kgm 


32 


sheets 


200 




32 




2 


bottles 


1 




2 


balls 


16 




2 


boxes 


4 


rolls 


4 


liters 


2 


kgm 


1 


kgm 


a 5 


kgm 


9 5 


kgm 


0,5 


kgm 



_ 16 - 



5 a IMPLEMENTATION OF ? TRIPLE E PHYSICS 1 

It is possible for a well motivated school to adapt the whole 
'Triple E Physics' program without outside help* It would of course be 
responsible for its own apparatus production^ laboratory development and 
teacher orientation , and there is no doubt that this would be a major task. 

In general it is hoped that science education centers $ supervisors and 
administrators will provide teachers with the help that is needed on a 
regional basis • Such individuals and centers can determine which experiments 
might best be integrated into the curriculum,, They can designate local 
workshops for apparatus production and arrange some system of technical 
guidance and quality control* They can survey existing laboratory facilities 
and recommend essential developments 8 In addition they can arrange for 
teachers to receive appropriate in-service training in the materials 9 insuring 
a well orientated teacher returns to the class room. It is recommended that 
materials should be introduced in the first instance on a trial basis , for 
however well the materials might have worked elsewhere it is important to 
determine whether students have problems with the materials f and whether 
teachers are able to handle them adequately • It is important to recognize 
production problems at an early stage t and problems such as these are best 
detected by a limited trial of the materials • The following chart 
summarizes the processes which might be introduced to insure a successful 
implementation of the materials . 






- 17 - 



Preview 




In-service Training 



Production and testing of one complete set of 
'Triple E Physics 1 materials by small groups of 
educators and technicians,, Decision as to which 
materials should be adopted in existing curriculum* 



Exposure courses for limited number of teachers 9 
administrators and technicians to be involved in 
future trials and subsequent in-service training* 



School Trials 



Feedback to be obtained on all aspects of 
materials 9 modifications being made as required* 



In-service Training 



i 



In-service training for teachers f administrators 
and technicians to be involved in large scale 
adoption of materials 



Targe Scale Adoption 



Large scale adoption of materials 
as desired 



Tre-service" 
Training 



Inclusion of adopted materials in regular pre-service 
training programs 9 



- 18 - 



6 @ APPARATUS PRODUCTION 

In looking around for suitable apparatus producers it is almost 
certain that administrators will give some thought to the use of students 
and teachers , technical institutions , factories and cottage industries , 
and a brief comment on each might be helpful • 

60 1 _ S tudenf, &'aA.J?S^^---~—~^~- 

Students and teachers are encouraged to make items for themselves , for 
apparatus development can bring both students and teachers into close contact 
with the realities of science , relating science and technology in the simplest 
of ways* 




However, this does not mean that students and teachers should attempt to 
produce all their own apparatus requirements . It is recognized that teachers 
have specific curricula to follow, and that "class hours" available for such 
work are very limited . It would therefore appear to be more realistic to 
look to other sources for mass production of apparatus . 



19 - 



6 „ 2 Te chnlca^S^o^^i^^^tlon^^ 

Another alternative often considered is the use of students in technical 
schools as production units . Any such plan should again take into account 
the fact that technical institutions are primarily training centers and not 
mass-production units • However „ valuable training in scientific instrumentation 
can be gained by involving students in some form of apparatus production. 

Many countries look to new government factories to solve their equipment 
problems , and here^ too ? one might add a word of caution* Such plans require 
considerable input in the way of machines and training of personnel , while 
care must be taken to avoid the typical red tape and bureaucracy that so often 
accompany' government-run organizations . 

The fourth alternative , and in many ways the most desirable 9 is to look to 
the so-called cottage industries which exist in developing countries. In these 

small industries, there are many 
workshops with hand tools and 
simple lathes and drill presses , 
and there are enough semiskilled 
workers to operate them* So long 
as apparatus is designed with 
these conditions clearly in mind f 
it can be produced without building 
new factories or undertaking major 
training programs. At the same 
time useful work can be offered to 
a number of relatively underemployed 
people 8 




_ 20 - 
7. WORKSHOP FACILITIES 

Any workshop wishing to produce reasonable quantities of equipment will 
wish to procure the majority of the following handtools. 

Chisels (Wood) 

3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24 mms 

(i.e., 1/8", 1/4", 3/8", 1/2", 5/8", 3/4", 7/8", 1") 8 

Cutters 

Bench Shears, 3 mm (1/8") capacity 1 

Glass Cutter 1 

Knife 1 

Scissors, 200 mm (8") 1 

Snips (Tinmans), Straight, 200 mms (8") 1 

Snips (Tinmans), Curved, 200 mms (8") 1 

Taps and Dies, 3 to 12 mms (1/8" to 1/2") set 1 

Drills and Borers 

Cork Borer Set 1 

Countersink, 90° 1 
Metal Drill Holder (Electrically Driven), 

Capacity 6 mm (1/4") 1 
Metal Drills, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 mms 

(i.e., 1/32", 1/16", 3/32", 1/8", 5/32", 3/16", 7/32", 1/4") set 1 

Wood Brace with Ratchet, 250 mms (10") 1 

Wood Augur, Bits 6, 12, 18, 24 mms (I.e., 1/4", 1/2", 3/4", 1') 4 

Files (Double Cut) 

Flat, 100 mm, 200 mm (4", 8") 2 

Round, 100 mm, 200 mm (4", 8") 2 

Triangular, 100 mm (4") 1 

Hammers 

Ball Pein, 125, 250, 500 grams (1/4, 1/2, 1 lbs) * 3 

Claw 250 grams (1/2 lb) 1 

Measuring Aids 

Caliper (Inside) 1 

Caliper (Outside) 1 

Caliper (Vernier) may replace above two items 1 

Dividers, 150 mms (6"), Toolmakers 1 

Meter, Electrical (Multipurpose - volts, ohms, amps, etc.) 1 

Meter Stick 1 

Scriber 1 

Square, Carpenter's, 300 mm (12") blade 1 

Square, Try, 150 mm (6") blade 1 



- 21 - 



Planes 



Spoke Shave, 18 mm (3/4") 1 

Wood Smoothing Plane 1 



Pliers 

Combination* 150 mm (6") 1 

Long Nose, 150 mm (6") 1 

Side Cutting, 150 mm (6") 1 

Saws (Metal) 

300 mm (12") blades 1 

(Wood) 

Cross Cut* 600 mm (24") 1 

Hand Rip, 600 mm (24") 1 

Tenon, 200, 300 mm (8", 12") 2 

Screw Drivers 

100 mm (4"h with 2 and 3 mm tips 2 

150 mm (6"), with 5 mm tip 1 

200 mm (8"), with 7 mm tip 1 

Vices 

Engineers Bench Vice, 75 mm (3") 2 

Wood Work Bench Vice, 150 mm (6") 2 

Wrenches (Adjustable) 

100, 150, 200 mm (4", 6", 8") 3 

Miscellaneous 

Goggles, Glass (pair) 1 

Oil Can, 1/2 litre (1 pint) 1 

Oil Stone, double faced 1 

Punch, Center 1 

Soldering Iron (60 watts, 100 watts) 2 

Stamps, 3 mm (1/8") set of letters and numbers - 1 



- 22 - 



7 @ 2 Machine Tools 

Machine tools are not essential for the production of 'Triple E Physics' 
equipments However , they do make the process of production so much quicker 
and easier , and there is no doubt that cottage industries will find the 
items listed below a distinct asset* 

Specifications indicated below are approximate , and only intended as a 
guideline . 3 phase motors are preferred , being cheaper and more economical 
to run, but all machines may be bought with either 1 phase or 3 phase motors 
depending on the supply available . Voltage depends on the local supply , 
while horse power is a matter of personal preference , but the lower the power 
the cheaper the machines 

1 Bandsaw (1/2 HP) 

400 mm (16") Throat 

1 Circular Saw (1 HP) 

250 mm (10") Blade, Tilting Table 
Mitre Gauge , Fence „ Guards 

1 Drill Press (1/2 HP) 

12 mm (1/2") Capacity Chuck, Variable Speed 

1 Grinder (1/2 HP) 

150 mm (6") Wheels , double ended 

1 Metal Lathe (1/2 HP) 

Bench Type, Screw Cutting Center Lathe, Variable Speed (40 - 1500 rpm) , 
Reversing Switch „ Gearbox and Automatic Apron , Centers placed at height 
of 100 mms (4") with 600 mms (24") between Centers : 

- 3 Turning Toolholders (right hand, left hand, straight) with Bits 

- 3 Parting Off Toolholders (right hand* left hand, straight) .with Bits 

- 1 Three Jaw, Self Centering Chuck and Backplate, 120 mm (5") 

- 1 Four Jaw, Independent Chuck and Backplate, 150 mm (6") 

- 1 Knurling Toolholder with Steel Knurls 

- 1 Double Ended One Piece Boring Bar 

- 1 Face Plate , 200 mm (8") diameter 

- 3 Lathe Dogs, 6, 12, 25 mm (1/2", 3/4", 1") 

- 1 Drill Chuck, 12 mm (1/2") capacity, with No„ 2 M 9 T e 

- 1 Rotating Center with No, 2 M 9 T 9 

- 1 Draw in Collet Attachment 

- 1 Set of Collets, 12 mms (1/2") maximum size 

- 1 Quick Change Tool Post 

- 4 Quick Change Tool Holders 



-23- 

Further items are not essential . However f for those wishing to make 
their workshop facilities complete the following items may be added. 

1 Buffing Machine (1/2 HP) 

with R 9 H 6 and L 8 H„ Extension Spindles , 
Polishing Mop and Wire Brush 

1 Oxy-acetylene Set (Very limited usage) 

with Oxygen and Acetylene Regulators % 
Welding Torch (with Tips)* Cutting Torch 
(with Nozzles and Cutting Guide) f Hosing and 
Goggles 

1 Planer (1 HP) 

15 cm (6") Blade, Tilting Table 

1 Woodlathe (3/4 HP) 

Centers located at height of 15 cms (6") 9 admitting 75 cms 
(30") between Centers, Complete withs 

- 2 Handrests, 200 & 400 mms (8" & 16") 

- 2 Face Plates t inner 200 mm (8") and outer 400 mm (16") 

- 3 Centers (1 cone, 1 fork, 1 cup) 

- 1 Set of Hand Turning Tools with long blades 150 to 200 mms 

(6" to 8") 



- 24 - 

7„3 Raw Materials 

This list is not a complete itemization of all the raw materials used 
in a production workshop,, It is simply an indication of the type of 
materials in constant use which would tend to form the basic stock of any 
production workshop , and which are worth ordering in limited quantities 
for any newly established workshop 8 

Adhesives 

All Purpose Cement (Elmers , Duco) 
Epoxy Resin & Hardener (Araldite) 
Rubber Cement (Rugy) 
Wood Glue (Weldwood) 
Cellophane Tape 
Plastic Tape 

Electrical Materials 

Bulbs with Holders (1 9 2, 2*5, 6 8 2 volts) 

Dry Cells (l a 5 volts) 

Electrical Wire (Cotton or Plastic covered) 

Fuse Wire (Assorted) 

Magnet Wire (#20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34) 

Nichrome Wire (Assorted) 

Parallel Electrical Cording 

Plugs 

Glass and Plastic 

Acrylic (Plastic) Sheets , 2 cm and 2*5 cms thick 
Plates (Glass), 56 x 56 x e 3 cms (22" x 22" x 1/8") 
Tubes (Glass), 3, 6 mms (1/8", 1/4") internal diameter) 

Hardware 

Bolts and Nuts 

- Brass 3 mms (1/8") diameter, 12, 24, 48 mms (1/2", 1", 2") lengths ; 

5 mms (3/16") diameter, 24, 36 mms (1", 1 1/2") lengths' 

- Steel 5 mms (3/16") diameter, 12, 24, 48, 96 mms (1/2", 1", 2", 

3") lengths 

- Nails, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 mms (1/2", 1", 1 1/2", 2", 2 1/2", 

3") lengths 

- Sandpaper (00-2) and Carborundum Paper (120 - 500) 

- Screws 

- Cup Screws 

- Wood Screws 12, 18, 24, 36 mms (1/2", 3/4", 1" 1 1/2") lengths 

- Thumb Tacks 

- Washers (Brass), 6, 9 mms (1/4", 3/16") diameter 

- Wingnuts (Steel), 9 mms (3/16") 

- Wire (Steel), #20, 26, 30 






! < 



I i 



_ 25 - 



Lumber 



Boxwood (Packing Case Material) 

Hardboard, 6 mms (1/4") thick 

Kiln Dried Wood, 2.5 x 15 cms (1" x 6") cross section 

1.2 x 15 cms (1/2" x 6") cross section 
Plywood, 6, 12 mms (1/4" , 1/2") thickness 

Metals 

Bars 

- Brass , 12 x 3 mms (1/2" x 1/8") cross section 
~ Mild Steel, 12 x 3 mms (1/2" x 1/8") 

18 x 3 mms (3/4" x 1/8") 

- Tool Steel, 9 x 9 mms (3/8" x 3/8") 

40 x 40 mms (1 3/5" x 1 3/5") 

- Spring Steel, Packing Case Bands 

Rods 

- Aluminum , 50 mms (2") diameter >, 

- Brass, 2, 3, 9, 12, 18, 36 mms (1/16", 1/8", 3/8", 1/2", 3/4", 1 1/2") 

diameters 
~ Mild Steel, 6, 9 mms (1/4", 3/8") diameters 

- Stainless Steel, 2 mms (1/16") diameter 

Sheets 

- Aluminum, 0*2, 9 4 9 0*8, 1.6, 3.0 mms (1/100", 1/64", 1/32". 

1/16", 1/8") thickness 

- Brass, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3*0 mms (1/64", 1/32", 1/16", 1/8") 

thickness 

- Copper, 0.8 mms (1/32") 

- Iron, 1.6 mms (1/16") 

- Lead, 0.8 mms (1/32") 

- Zinc, 0.8 mms (1/32") 

Tubes 

- Aluminum, 9, 12 mms (3/8", 1/2") internal diameter 
.- Brass, 5 mms (3/16") internal diameter 

Paint Materials 

Alcohol (Denatured) Paint Thinner , fT~ 

Enamel (Black) Primer 

Enamel (White) Putty 

Lacquer, Clear Shellac 

Lacquer Thinner Wood Filler 

Paint Brushes 



. 26 - 



Miscellaneous 



Aluminum Foil 

Carbon Paper 

Cartolina 

Containers (Plastic or Glass) 

Corks (Rubber or Cork) 

Grease 

Machine Oil 

Metal Polish 



Modelling Clay (Plasticene) 

Paper Clips 

Pensg, Felt (Marking Pens) 1 

Rubber Bands 

Soldering Lead 

Soldering Paste 

Straws 

String (Cordp Cotton„ Nylon) 



7 o4 Adhesives 

The following guidelines for fastening materials together should prove 
to be useful to those undertaking equipment making for the first time. 



Metals 



Material 



Aluminum to Aluminum 
Brass to Brass 

Copper to Copper (Magnet Wire) 
Steel to Steel 
Steel to Brass 
Windings of Magnet Wire 
(layer to layer) 



Wood 



Glass to Wood (Ripple Tank) 
Metal to Wood 
Wood to Wood 

Miscellaneous 

Any Combinations of Materials 

e s g 9g Glass t Metal^ Paper^ 
Wood # etc. 



Adhesive 



Rivets 9 Screws 

Rivets $ Screws $ Solder 

Solder 

Rivets f Screws $ Solder , Welding 

Rivets „ Screws, Solder 

Varnish 



Asphalt Based Cement 

Screws 

Screws , Wood Glue (Weldwood) 



Any All-Purpose Cement 

e.g.,,, Duco Cement^ Elmers Glue t 
Epoxy Resin & Hardener , 
Rubber Cement „ etc. 



lij 



- 27 - 



7.5 A Workshop Plan 

The following is the plan of the workshop in which the first complete 
set of 'Triple E Physics' materials was produced* It is not offered as an 
ideal layout. It was in fact somewhat cramped, but it proved to be more 
than adequate for the development of all the prototype equipment 9 and was 
considered large enough to produce a complete set of class materials. 




OC_aJ(sL 



fVVeu 



it- 



1 9 Experiment Table 

2. Office Table 

3. Storage Shelves 

4 . Storage Racks 

5. Woodwork Benches 



6, 


Metalwork Benches 


16. 


7* 


Circular Saw and Planer 






Combined 


23 


8, 


Band Saw 


A 


9. 


Woordwork Lathe 


10. 


Metalwork Lathe 


Iff! 



11, Metal Polisher (Horizontal) 

12, Grinder 

13, Polisher (Vertical) 

14, Bench Drill Press "z^".. 

15, Oxy-Acetylene Equipment 

16, Hand Tool Cupboard 



220 volt Electrical Outlet 

Gas Outlet 

Sink with Running Water 



Electrical requirements depend on machines ordered , 
and may be single phase or 3 phase 9 and possibly both. 
Similar considerations affect the voltage provided. 



» 28 - 



8o _JiABQBATORY ..FACILITIES 

In designing a laboratory to meet local requirements several variables 
must be taken into consideration These include the prevailing climatic 
conditions 9 local availability (or otherwise) of mains water electricity 
and gas j the nature of experiments to be performed $ the type of apparatus 
to be utilized g and the teaching techniques to be employed in the laboratory . 

From country to country conditions of temperature , humidity , dust t 
prevailing winds , precipitation^ and lighting vary considerably, and each 
individual country is the best judge of its own specific problems • In 
tropical countries 9 for example $ the problem of humidity and temperature 
necessitates particular attention being given to cross ventilation to insure 
personal comfort for the student , This means that the creation of blackout 
facilities for optical experiments and ripple tank work gives rise to 
problems , if windows must be covered,, One simple solution is to design 
apparatus to function efficiently under daylight conditions by using high 
powered light sources . For this the availability of mains electricity is a 
major asset a 

It is important that consideration should be given to how laboratory 
facilities are to be used in practice . There is little point designing a 
laboratory for individual student experimentation if the cost of apparatus 
limits activities to class demonstrations • Equally well it would be wrong 
to procure small scale apparatus (intended for individual student use) if it 
was to be used for class demonstrations,, 

It follows that there is no single blue-print for a laboratory f and the 
design of the Economy laboratory presented is simply one of many possibilities. 
This laboratory is primarily designed for a secondary school in a tropical 
country , and tackles the typical climatic problems that must be considered® 
It is also designed for small student group experimentation • 

8»1 The Economy Laboratory 
Layout 

The size of the Economy Laboratory depends upon the maximum number of 
students likely to occupy the laboratory at any given time g space being 
allocated at the rate of approximately 3 square meters (33 sq ft„) per 
student % an additional area of 10 sq„ meters being provided for the workshop 



- 29 - 



preparation room* It is important to stress that in following an 
inquiring approach the teacher is normally very much in demand as a 
consultant , and ? if the system is to work efficiently , class numbers 
must be kept to a minimum,, It is realized that large classes are not 
uncommon in Developing Countries , but it is strongly recommended that 
every attempt should be made to limit laboratory classes to approximately 
32 students , looking on numbers in excess of this as a temporary state of 
affairs,, 

Overleaf is a typical laboratory layout for 32 students (working in 
pairs) with 4 students at each table,, (It would not be difficult to seat 
48 students in the same laboratory by placing 6 at each table , particularly 
if the experiment tables were lengthened by 30 cms,, and the laboratory size 
increased accordingly . However t a great deal would be lost by students 
working in larger groups,, 3 to a group, and the temptation should be resisted) 

The layout indicated is not the only possibility by any means „ but what- 
ever arrangement is chosen , it should be flexible,, and should permit the 
teacher to circulate freely amongst the students at work,, and should give 
ready access to apparatus cupboards . Location of windows should insure good 
lighting and cross ventilation (particularly in hot countries), and cupboards 
should be located accordingly . Above all, laboratory arrangements should be 
flexible , permitting regrouping of furniture according to the specific needs 
of the class • Four such re-arrangements are illustrated in the plans 
presented, indicating how the laboratory might be arranged for normal 
experiments, for ripple tank work and for discussion groups,, Such flexi- 
bility cannot be achieved without paying careful attention to the design 
of laboratory furniture , and this is discussed in detail following the j— 
presentation of the floor plans . 



- 30 - 



%\5 _^>j 



LEGEND 
A WINDOWS 

B TABLE TOP WALL BENCH 
C CUPBOARD 

D DEMONSTRATION TABLE 
E EXPERIMENT TABLE 
W WORKBENCH 
SH OPEN SHELVES 
H ELECTRICAL OUTLET 
O STOOL 
[j["[ SINK WITH TAP 



SCALE I CM » I METER 



LiJ^J^J^J^^t 



i$;w 



O I 



134. 




m 

1 j 



ECONOMY LABORATORY 
Layout for normal experiments 



- 31 - 



m 



LEGEND 

A WINDOWS 

B TABLE TOP WALL BENCH 

C CUPBOARD 

D DEMONSTRATION TABLE 

E .EXPERIMENT TABLE 
W WORKBENCH 
SH OPEN SHELVES 
£3 ELECTRICAL OUTLET 
O STOOL 

SINK WITH TAP 



W] RIPPLE TANK 



SCALE 1 CM = 1 METER 



o i X 3 *■ S 



A 



u 








ECONOMY LABORATORY 
Layout for Ripple Tank Work 



. 32 - 



LEGEND 
A WINDOWS 

B TABLE TOP WALL BENCH 
C CUPBOARD 

D DEMONSTRATION TABLE 
E EXPERIMENT TABLE 
W WORKBENCH 
SH OPEN SHELVES 
\W\ RIPPLE TANK 
ggj ELECTRICAL OUTLET 
O STOOL 

SINK WITH TAP 



SCALE 1 CM - 1 METER 



O I X J 4 S' 

metERs 



W 



SH 

At«fAftA1t»tJ 
RooM I- 




® 



A 



HI 



fl 



g 



i 

S 
I 

LP 



m 



& 



i 



•S J> 



,ffl 



e 


e 




e 


B 






If 



at 



E 



E 



E 



§ 



s 
s 

11 

1 



fl 



e 



! 1 



n 



U 



ECONOMY LABORATORY 
Alternative Layout for Ripple Tank Work 



U 



- 33 - 



LEGEND 
A WINDOWS 

B TABLE TOP WALL BENCH 
C CUPBOARD 

D DEMONSTRATION TABLE 
E EXPERIMENT TABLE 
W WORK BENCH 
SH OPEN SHELVES 
(33 ELECTRICAL OUTLETS 
O STOOL 



r~j|j SINK WITH TAP 



SCALE 1 CM - 1 METER 



L i I I I L-IaJLiJ 




ECONOMY LABORATORY 
Layout for Demonstrations and Discussion Groups 



- 34 - 



Student Tables 

Although the student experiment table should be of sturdy design 
(with a good horizontal surf ace) , it should not be fixed to the floor 8 
whether deliberately ? or accidentally (by water or electrical conduits) , 
for it is intended as a mobile unit 9 A table top 180 x 90 cms is 
suitable for A students (working in pairs on either side of the table) , 
particularly if an open shelf is provided for books 9 leaving the top 
surface completely free for apparatus. The height of the table is a 
matter of personal choice , and may vary from 75 to 90 cms* depending on 
the height of the student , and the teacher f s philosophy . There is a 
tendency nowadays to prefer a high table , since a great deal of 
experimenting is done in a standing position with resulting discomfort if 
this necessitates a stooping positions 



n 

lJ 

n 



r 



SSomS 



I 



§qfkct Qlt€<K ISo^Qcwi 



Qp£*A Sv*£LV 



m 



i' 



\ 



tOom TnS«V 



m 



Student Experiment Table with Stool 




. J 



LJ 



Table Height and Posture 



„ 35 - 



Table Top Wall Benches 

The table top wall benches provide students with water and electricity 
outlets. The latter are used primarily as a means of illuminating ripple 
tanks and optical light sources . High wattage bulbs may be used if mains 
electricity is connected to the electrical outlets , thus permitting 
experiments to be conducted without blacking out the laboratory . Should 
mains electricity not be available^ the same outlets may be supplied from 
.12 volt batteries 9 placed on the open shelf beneath the bench . 
Unfortunately , lower wattage bulbs must then be used f and at least partial 
darkening of the laboratory becomes necessary . This inevitably gives rise 
to additional problems in tropical countries. As an interim measure 
batteries may be extremely useful 9 but in the long term they are 
inconvenient and uneconomic 9 and should not be considered as a permanent 
solution to the electrical supply problem. 



.p-i 







ToVAeTcp 



(Sink(S) hidden by front panel. Battery (B) 
wired to outlets if no mains electricity is 
available) . 



f.r-i 



- 36 - 



The table top wall benches may also be used for project work and 
standing displays! particularly if the uninterrupted top surface area 
is increased by the provision of wooden sink covers • Should a mains water 
supply not be available this need not act as a deterrent to experimental 
work* A water can placed above (or on) the bench can provide water 9 while 
a bucket beneath the sink can take it away* This p of course , is not as 
convenient as having tap water laid on p and should be considered only as 
an interim measure . 















Demonstration Table 






fttr«c\*« J to WftU 

s^w Co^i* w»;^ 



%'^cV^.V 



The teacher's demonstration table could be almost the same as the 
student experiment table , with the addition of a sink and electrical 
outlet (preferably 110 or 220 volts AC t but as already mentioned 12 volts DC 
could be used instead) , but it is invaluable to include a few drawers and 
cupboards for extra storage space,, 



u 










SVultA^S 



Demonstration Table 



- 37 - 



E"Vfc.>|cO%GV\ 

r<xc\w 



"VctoA SutP^u^ Rrtc, 3*0*^0 OmS 




Demonstration Table 

An apparatus trolley stored alongside the table usefully extends the 
demonstration surface , a small clip holding the trolley firmly to the 
table* Many teachers prefer the table to be elevated on a platform 
about 15 cms high* This is a matter of personal choice % but 9 if it 
is done, the trolley should be removed and the table extended to 
measure 250 x 90 cms . 

Blackboard 

The blackboard should be located on the wall behind the demonstration 
table 9 reaching from table top height (85 cms) to the full reach of the 
teacher . The higher the blackboard the better the visibility for the 
student 9 giving some justification to those who choose to place the 
demonstration table on a platform* 




a) Without Platform 



$* 



4 



£ 



T,,V,\< 



JT:V*:X=I:«:» 



1*0 



b) With Platform (370 x 180 cm) 
Location of Blackboard 



- 38 - 



Cupboards 

Many schools prefer to locate storage facilities in a separate 
store room for security t but if apparatus is to be used to the optimum 
extent it should be placed as accessible as possible,, preferably in the 
laboratory itself . It is therefore well worthwhile securing the whole 
laboratory % rather than a single store room* The tendency to make 
cupboard doors of wood or metal , for security reasons % should be 
avoided , for apparatus is more readily located when the doors are of 
glass t and is therefore more likely to be used* Shelves could of course 
be left open g but doors do preserve apparatus by excluding grime and dirt, 



U 



L : j 



I*- 



%o 



+1 






/D0 _ _ _ I 






ts- 



-"I 



T 



I 



I 






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jo 




i-J 

n 



S 



Cupboards 
They are also essential if humidity is to be controlled (as in tropical 
countries) by the location of a 40 watt bulb in one or more cupboards. 
In the long run the most important factor in preserving apparatus will 
be regular cleaning by the laboratory assistants Cupboard shelves should 



n 



: "1 



_ 39 - 

be adjustable to cope with varying sizes of apparatus , and to give 
flexibility of arrangement t while glass doors should be hinged so 
that shelves , or apparatus stores on trays (in class kits) $ can be 
removed from the cupboard without difficulty • 




ftA^WlV SWW 



ftpoc*^ s ^5 



Adjustable Shelves 

Reference Library 

It is well worthwhile setting aside two shelves , for books and 
periodicals , to act as a class reference library • This should be a 
corner for stimulating reading , not for boring college textbooks . 
Readers written specifically for such programs as the "PSSC" 9 "Nuffield 
O-Level Physics" and "Harvard Physics" , and science magazines , of the 
caliber of "Scientific American", provide ideal reference material 8 



ftuioJlt'CAlS 



f^woV 




Reference Library 



- 40 - 

However , one should not overlook references such as biographies 9 which 
follow the trials and tribulations of scientists % or narratives which 
relate social progress to scientific advancements f both of which have 
considerable student appeal. Examples of such materials ares 

a) "The Century of the Surgeon" by Jurgen Thorwald 
"The Century of the Detective" by Jurgen Thorwald, 

two "Reader's Digest" condensed books which not only 
capture the excitement and allure of science % but also 
depict its impact on society • 

b) "Reviving Minds by Brain Surgery" by Dr 8 Hakim 

An article from "Life Magazine" (May 1967) describing 
the discovery of a surgical treatment for hydrocephalus 
depending on Pascual's Law of Balancing Pressures . 

c) "Madame Curie „ First Lady of Science" 
"Dr 9 Burkitt Tracks a Cancer Clue" 

two articles from a "Reader's Digest" magazine (October 1968) , 
the first a very human biography 9 and the second an excellent 
insight into the processes from which theories emerge. 

Floor Insulation 



In finalizing the laboratory f note should be made of the fact that 
students may be using mains electricity (110 or 220 volts) , and appropriate 
safety measures should be taken* It is a wise precaution to cover laboratory 
floors with an insulating materials Few schools will be able to afford 
vinyl floor covering , but many will be able to make use of local wood* 
Bare concrete „ particularly when wet f can lead to dangerous accidents . 

Workshop 

Teachers with an aptitude for "tinkering" , or provided with a laboratory 
assistant (technician) 9 will wish to make full use of the workshop areas in 
the preparation room 9 The type of handtools and raw materials which might 
be found useful in such a workshop are listed under "Workshop Facilities" 
(Chapter 7), 






_ 41 - 



Science Wing 

— —■ t —a t i , • »— it— *» ■ 

In developing a physics laboratory it is worth considering science 
requirements as a whole „ Location of laboratories side by side not only 
insures optimum use of mutual facilities (such as the workshop) $ but also 
encourages cooperation between the individual scientific disciplines * A 
possible layout for a science wing is illustrated below* Large schools 
may require two laboratories for each scientific discipline , in which case 



C item sir*/ 







1 






CuCittf 



.*/\ 



LfttoPATo&'-f 



__ 

BJii0 



.'^ 



PlWS 






Co(?g»feo^ 



Science Wing 

preparation and workshop facilities may be shared between two physics 
laboratories 9 with a mutual store room for more expensive items of equipment 
which the school cannot afford to duplicate . 










CoRfUDo©, 



Physics Wing 



- 42 - 



8»2 The Normal Laboratory 

Most teachers will have noted that the Economy Laboratory omits several 
facilities normally found in more normal laboratories $ and it is worth 
considering these separately s not only to convince the teacher of the 
adequacy of the Economy Laboratory $ but also to indicate possible directions 
for future developments 

Dark Room Facilities and Ventilation 

The most important omission is that of blackout facilities 9 or a 
dark room* Many optical experiments can be performed without difficulty 
in a normal § well lit laboratory,, and a dark room is considered as a 
luxury item for the future 9 when photographic work becomes a normal part 
of the course 9 and more sensitive optical apparatus makes black out 



B 
D 
SH 

W 

JL 

s 



IE GEND 



(*• 



■ %ts. 



-M«- 



3.*S 



T 

110 



TABLE TOP WALL BEECH 

DEMONSTRATION TABLE 

OPEN SHELVES 

WORK BENCH 

EffiGTRICAL OUTLET (110 or 220 Vo! 

SINK WITH TAP 

SCALE 1 CM=1M 






W PfeEMftftTieii. 

8 «° «- Wa&*sa©p 



L » I 4_j 



J. 



±_i_J 



Meters 




tf*& 



,fc^ 



SM 



bmK Roosi 



© 



i 3> 



3 



LAfeoRAToft"/ 



4c 



■toj Licsht 




Location of Dark Room 

conditions essential . The space next to the preparation room would be 
ideal for such a future development „ Schools in tropical countries would 
need to avoid eliminating ventilation in the dark room g despite the need 
to black out existing windows 9 and could achieve this to some extent by 
replacing the conventional door by a light trap 9 and by installing sloping 
ventilation shafts in the walls . The resultant blackout conditions would 
be adequate for most purposes , so long as the walls were painted with 
black matt paint „ 



- 43 - 




i. 






Ventilation Shafts 

•Blacking out the laboratory itself is another problem the teacher 
would have to face if projectors were to be used in the classroonu Such 
apparatus is considered beyond the means of the average school 9 but is 
worth considering for the future . Wooden louvres could exclude light 
reasonably well, but tend to continue to exclude too much light from the 
laboratory when actually open* Roller blinds would therefore be considered 
more suitable . Once again tropical countries would have to make provision 
for adequate ventilation by means of slanting ventilation shafts in the 
walls e The apparatus trolley , already referred to, could be used as a 
projector standi particularly if the height of the upper surface could 
be adjusted , while a permanent screen located above the demonstration 
table would enable projection work to go ahead without relocation of 
students, encouraging greater use of such facilities* 



- 44 - 



Blackout 
Material 



Wooden Frame 



tai 



m 



m 



QJTLQ 



I 







UleoJUvt f r»w»* 



Co*i 



Roller Blind 







rofw 



Projector /Apparatus Trolley 



- 45 - 






|00 om C 



-i-A 






TAW. 



&\*cV\koutA 



Projection Screen 



- 46 - 



Mains Supplies 

The Economy Laboratory would make use of simple alcohol or kerosene 
burners for most heating purposes • However 9 looking to the future most 
teachers would prefer to have gas available from either gas tanks or the 
mains, not only because of the convenience, but also because of the better 
flame that can be provided , Similarly the Economy Laboratory would make 
considerable use of dry cells for electrical experiments^ but looking to 
the future it would be very useful to have a 10 volt DC supply in the 
laboratory,, Such facilities might be installed at the teacher's demonstra- 
tion table and in the workshop „ where they would be extensively used„ while 
extension to the wall benches and experiment tables would prove to be a 
most valuable addition , 

Such facilities are included in the Normal Laboratory Plan overleaf • 
The layout presented could be identical to the Economy Laboratory already 
discussed,, but interesting insights may be gained by presenting an alternative 
arrangements The new layout would require somewhat greater space , but would 
have the advantage of students never sitting with their backs towards the 
demonstration table,, so that short discussions and film projection would be 
possible without changing the seating arrangement* Students would also be 
somewhat more accesible to the teacher , and apparatus to the class . The 
major problem of such an arrangement would be in making gas and electricity 
supplies available to students without fixing the tables in permanent positions . 
This could be achieved by the use of raised floor outlets (as well as table 
outlets) with appropriate connections that could be disconnected,, A better 
system would probably be that of using independent columns to carry the mains 
supplies to the tables . On moving the table the supply column'would be lef t __, 
protruding „ but would not be a deterrent to flexible arrangement of furniture* 



„ 47 - 



V 4 








6WcW\ 0JWV- 

L 8 oawv 



Root O^W 



r r 



r 










Floor Outlets 



Column Outlets 



48 - 



LEGEND 

A WINDOWS 

B TABLE TOP WALL BENCH 

C CUPBOARD 

D DEMONSTRATION TABLE 

E EXPERIMENT TABLE 

SH OPEN SHELVES 

W WORK BENCH 

Ija ELECTRICAL OUTLET 

(110 or 220 volts AC) 

P ELECTRICAL OUTLET 
(10 volts DC) 

h GAS OUTLET 

rs^-J SINK WITH TAP 

Q5g FLOOR OR COLUMN OUTLETS 

(Equivalent to Sa6 ) 

O STOOL ' 



SCALE 1 CM = 1 M 

o » t a w s 



Meters 




N 



n 

i. 'j 



Normal Laboratory Layout for Experiments 



- 49 - 



LEGEND 

A WINDOWS 

B TABLE TOP WALL BENCH 

C CUPBOARD 

D DEMONSTRATION TABLE 

E EXPERIMENTAL TABLE 

SH OPEN SHELVES 

W WORK BENCH 

JS ELECTRICAL OUTLET (110 
or 220 volts AC) 

P ELECTRICAL OUTLET 
(10 volts DC) 

v S GAS OUTLET 

nfj SINK WITH TAP 

CFT\ FLOOR OR COLUMN OUTLETS 

(for 2 groups of students 9 
equivalent to KO<t> ) 

O STOOL 

RIPPLE TANK 
SCALE 1 CM - 1 M 



RT 



L 



A™i___L_i_-L 



i 



JL-L-J 

L. &'. 



w 



SH 

Wo&KSWoP 



s 



E 

1 



% 



1 






I 



Li CAT 



■TMP 



^ arm 



ft 




Meters 



Normal Laboratory Layout for Ripple Tank Work 



- 50 - 



f : ^ 



A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
SH 
W 

□ 

in 

O 



LEGEND 

WINDOWS 

TABLE TOP WALL BENCH 

CUPBOARD 

DEMONSTRATION TABLE 

EXPERIMENT TABLE 

OPEN SHELVES 

WORK BENCH 

ELECTRICAL OUTLET 
(110 or 220 volts AC) 

ELECTRICAL OUTLET 
(10 volts DC) 

GAS OUTLET 

SINK WITH TAP 

FLOOR OR COLUMN OUTLETS 
(Equivalent to C3pd) 

STOOL ■ 

SCALE 1 CM* 1M 



J_LJt 



j > | Meters 
L jT 




n 



Normal Laboratory Layout for Discussions 



- 51 - 



With such a layout the table top wall benches at the sides of the 
laboratory could be redesigned to include useful cupboard space below 
while appropriate sections could be replaced by glass cupboards if 
additional storage was required . 



\S 



W 



f_ 



0*>gM 



SNEl.? 




Table Top Wall Benches with Cupboard Space 



In finally deciding what facilities should be developed the teacher 
should question the necessity g in each case^ of the inclusion in the 
laboratory of the additional items generally found in the Normal Laboratory .